FACT 1: SARS-CoV-2 is related to bat SARS-like coronaviruses from southern China and northern Laos.
FACT 2: SARS-CoV-2 entered humans in or near Wuhan in August-November 2019.
FACT 3: SARS-CoV-2 entered humans either through a natural accident (just as in the first entry of the original SARS coronavirus into humans, which occurred through natural spillover in rural Guangdong province in 2002) or through a research accident (just as in the second third, fourth, and fifth entries of the original SARS coronavirus into humans, which occurred through a lab accident in Singapore in 2003, a lab accident in Taipei in 2003, and two separate lab accidents in Beijing in 2004).
FACT 4: Wuhan is located 1,000 km from the nearest wild bats with SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses.
FACT 5: Wuhan has labs that, at the start of the pandemic, conducted the world’s largest research program on bat SARS-like coronaviruses, possessed the world’s largest collection of bat SARS-like coronaviruses, and possessed the world’s only sample of a SARS-CoV-2-like coronavirus.
FACT 6: In 2016-2018, the Wuhan Institute of Virology constructed a series of novel chimeric SARS-like coronaviruses that combined the spike gene of one bat SARS-like coronavirus with the rest of the genetic information of another bat SARS-like coronavirus and identified viruses that were able to infect and replicate efficiently in human airway cells and that had 10,000x enhanced viral growth and 4x enhanced lethality in mice engineered to display human receptors on cells. In other words, in the years before the start of the pandemic, the Wuhan Institute of Virology had taken most of the steps needed to convert a natural bat SARS-like coronavirus to a novel human pandemic pathogen having the properties of SARS-CoV-2.
FACT 7: In 2018, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and its collaborators proposed to construct an expanded series of novel chimeric SARS-like coronaviruses (using newly identified spike genes having affinities for human receptors that ranged from very low to very high) and proposed to insert furin cleavage sites into SARS-like coronaviruses (inserting a feature that is crucial for the high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 and that is present in SARS-CoV-2 but not in any of the hundreds of other known SARS-like coronaviruses). In other words, just a year before the start of the pandemic, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and its collaborators proposed to take the remaining steps needed to convert a natural bat SARS-like coronavirus to a novel human pandemic pathogen having the properties of SARS-CoV-2.
FACT 8: In 2016-2019, the Wuhan Institute of Virology constructed and characterized SARS-like coronaviruses at biosafety level 2, a level inadequate for work with enhanced potential pandemic pathogens and inadequate to contain a virus having the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2.
FACT 9: From the start of the pandemic, the Wuhan Institute of Virology and its collaborators have withheld information, misrepresented facts, and obstructed investigation, even though–if not connected to origin–they most easily could have cleared their names though cooperation.
SUMMARY: A preponderance of evidence, including both the scientific evidence (facts 1-3) and the documentary evidence (facts 4-9), indicates that SARS-CoV-2 likely entered humans through a laboratory accident.
Sources for points 4-5 include:
Sources for point 6 include:
Sources for points 7-8 include:
Sources for point 9 include: